Research Paper

Download the research paper guidelines here: Research Paper Assignment

Can’t choose a topic? Here are some broad (and randomly chosen) topics with which to get started:

  • coin images as propaganda in the Roman/Hellenistic/Greek world
  • the prevalence of royal women in Ptolemaic Alexandrian/Egyptian/official/private art
  • so-called damnatio memoriae and desecration of images of Roman emperors
  • the concept of ‘Pax Romana’ and how it manifested itself/was expressed
  • the origins and development of the cult of Roma and the use of images of the goddess in official art
  • propaganda and the Ara Pacis (or some other element of the Augustan art and message)
  • Egyptomania in Roman art and society
  • violence in ancient art
  • treatment of enemies/barbarians/the ‘other’ in Near Eastern/Greek/Roman art
  • social and cultural meaning of the appropriation/patronage of Greek art in Rome
  • ideology of Mesopotamian/Neo-Assyrian/Persian kingship as reflected in art and monument
  • meaning, function and message in Neo-Assyrian palace reliefs
  • continuity vs. change in Roman imperial portraiture
  • the origins of the ‘veristic’ style in Roman portraiture
  • the purpose/motivation/reception of ruler cult in the Hellenistic kingdoms/Roman Empire and the blurring of the line between mortal and divine
  • use of symbol and mythology in art to express imperial ideology
  • origins, development, meaning of the Roman triumphal procession
  • use of images of the ancient world for the propagandistic purposes in modern media
  • themes and patterns in in Roman state reliefs
  • appropriation of Classical Greece in Augustan art and building
  • textual vs visual propaganda in Ancient Rome
  • representations of battle/war in art as a useful historical source for ancient warfare
  • duality of Ptolemaic royal images

And here is some bibliography to help get you started/inspire you:

General Propaganda, Image, Ideology

Eagleton, T. 2007. Ideology: an Introduction. 2nd ed. New York: Verso.

Edelman, M. 1995. From Art to Politics: How Artistic Creations Shape Political Conceptions. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Freedberg, D. 1989. The Power of Images: Studies in the History and Theory of Response. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Millon, H. A. and L. Nochlin, eds. 1978. Art and Architecture in the Service of Politics. Cambridge.

Mitchell, W. J. T., ed. 1980. The Language of Images. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

O’Shaughnessy, N. J. 2004. Politics and Propaganda. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.

Taithe, B. and T. Thornton, eds. 1999. Propaganda: Political Rhetoric and Identity: Sutton Publishing.

White, H. 1987. The Content of the Form: Narrative Discourse and Historical Representation. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.

General Ancient Empire/Propaganda

Alcock, S. et al. 2001. Empires: Perspectives from Archaeology and History. Cambridge.

Castriota, D., ed. 1986. Artistic Strategy and the Rhetoric of Power: Political Uses of Art from Antiquity to the Present. Carbondale.

Enenkel, K. A. E. and I. L. Pfeijffer, eds. 2005. The Manipulative Mode: Political Propaganda in Antiquity: a Collection of Case Studies. Mnemosyne, bibliotheca classica Batava. Supplementum, 261.  Boston: Brill.

Hekster, O. and R. Fowler (eds.) 2005. Imaginary Kings: Royal Images in the Ancient Near East, Greece and Rome. Stuttgart: Steiner.

Heinz, M. and M. H. Feldman, eds. 2007. Representations of Political Power: Case Histories from Times of Change and Dissolving Order in the Ancient Near East. Winona Lake, Ind.: Eisenbrauns.

Larsen, M. T. 1979. Power and Propaganda: a Symposium on Ancient Empires. Copenhagen: Akademisk Forlag.

Taylor, P. M. 2003. Munitions of the Mind: a History of Propaganda From the Ancient World to the Present Day. 3rd ed. Manchester, UK.

Roman World: propaganda, power in art and text, general, etc.

A. Alföldi, The main aspects of political propaganda on the coinage of the roman republic, in Essays in Roman Coinage Presented to Harold Mattingly, ed. R.A.G. Carson and C.H.V. Sutherland, (Oxford, 1956), pp 63-95

Beacham, R. 2003. “The Emperor as Impresario: Producing the Pageantry of Power.” In The Cambridge Companion to the Age of Augustus, edited by K. Galinsky, 151-74. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

Brendel, O. ‘Procession Personified’, AJA 49 (1945), 519–25.

Bruun, C. (ed.)  2000. The Roman Middle Republic: Politics, Religion, and Historiography c. 400 –133 B.C. Rome: Institutum Romanum Finlandiae.

Bruun, P. 1999. “Coins and the Roman imperial government.” In Roman Coins and Public Life under the Empire, edited by G. M. Paul, 19-40. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.

Burnett, A. 1999. “Buildings and Monuments on Roman coins.” In Roman Coins and Public Life under the Empire, edited by G. M. Paul, 137-64. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.

Busch, S. 2005. “Who are ‘We’? Towards Propagandistic Mechanism and Purpose of Caesar’s Bellum Gallicum.” In The Manipulative Mode: Political Propaganda in Antiquity, A Collection of Case Studies, edited by K. A. E. Enenkel and I. L. Pfeijffer, 143-66. Leiden: Brill.

Clarke, J. R. 2003. “Augustan domestic interiors: propaganda or fashion?” In Cambridge Companion to the Age of Augustus, edited by K. Galinsky, 264-80. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

Crawford, M. H. 1983. “Roman imperial coin types and the formation of public opinion.” In Studies in Numismatic Method presented to P. Grierson, edited by C. N. L. Brooke, B. H. I. H. Stewart, J. G. Pollard and T. R. Volk, 47-64.

Dillon, S. 2006. “Women on the columns of Trajan and Marcus Aurelius and the visual language of Roman victory.” In Representations of War in Ancient Rome, edited by S. Dillon and K. Welch, 244-71. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Dillon, S. and K. Welch, eds. 2006. Representations of War in Ancient Rome. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Elsner, J. 1998. Imperial Rome and Christian Triumph: the Art of the Roman Empire AD 100-450. New York: Oxford University Press.

Enenkel, K. A. E. 2005. “Epic prophecy as imperial propaganda? Jupiter’s first speech in Virgil’s Aeneid.” In The Manipulative Mode: Political Propaganda in Antiquity, A Collection of Case Studies, edited by K. A. E. Enenkel and I. L. Pfeijffer, 167-218. Leiden: Brill.

Evans, J. D. 1992. The Art of Persuasion: Political Propaganda from Aeneas to Brutus. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.

Favro, D. 2005. “Making Rome a world city.” In The Cambridge Companion to the Age of Augustus, edited by K. Galinsky, 234-63. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Fowler, R. 2005. “’Most fortunate roots’: tradition and legitimacy in Parthian royal ideology.” In Imaginary Kings: Royal Images in the Ancient Near East, Greece and Rome, edited by O. Hekster and R. Fowler. Stuttgart: Steiner.

Gregory, A. P.  1994.  “Powerful images: responses to portraits and the political uses of images in Rome.” JRA 7: 80–99.

Gisborne, M. 2005. “Sulla and royal imagery.” In Imaginary Kings: Royal Images in the Ancient Near East, Greece and Rome, edited by O. Hekster and R. Fowler. Stuttgart: Steiner.

Gruen, E. S. 1990. “The imperial policy of Augustus.” In Between Republic and Empire: Interpretations of Augustus and his Principate, edited by K. A. Raaflaub and T. M., 395-416. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Gurval, R. A. 1995. Actium and Augustus: The Politics and Emotions of Civil War. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan.

Haeckl, A. E. 1993. “Roman portraiture: reflections on the question of context.” Journal of Roman Archaeology 6:289-302.

Hannestad, N. 1986. Roman Art and Imperial policy. Aarhus: Aarhus University Press.

Hekster, O. 2005. “Captured in the gaze of power: visibility, games and Roman imperial representation.” In Imaginary Kings: Royal Images in the Ancient Near East, Greece and Rome, edited by O. Hekster and R. Fowler. Stuttgart: Steiner.

Hölscher, T.  2004. The Language of Images in Roman Art. Cambridge.

Hölscher, T.  2006. “The transformation of victory into power: from event to structure.” In Representations of War in Ancient Rome, edited by S. Dillon and K. Welch, 27-48. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Horsley, R. A. (ed.) 1997. Paul and Empire: Religion and Power in Roman Imperial Society. Harrisburg, Pa.: Trinity Press International.

Kellum, B. 1985. “Sculptural Programs and Propaganda in Augustan Rome: The Temple of Apollo on the Palatine.” In The Age of Augustus, edited by R. Winkes, 169-76.

Kennedy, D. F. 1992. “‘Augustan’ and ‘Anti-Augustan’: Reflections on Terms of Reference.” In Roman Poetry and Propaganda in the Age of Augustus, edited by A. Powell, 26-58. London: Bristol Classical Press.

King, C. E. 1999. “Roman portraiture: images of power.” In Roman Coins and Public Life under the Empire, edited by G. M. Paul, 123-36. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.

Kleiner, D. 2005. “Semblance and storytelling in Augustan Rome.” In The Cambridge Companion to the Age of Augustus, edited by K. Galinsky, 197-233. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Kondoleon, C., et al. 1999. The Art of Ancient Spectacle. Washington: National Gallery of Art.

Koortbojian, M. 2006. “The bringer of victory: imagery and institutions at the advent of empire.” In Representations of War in Ancient Rome, edited by S. Dillon and K. Welch, 184-217. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Kousser, R. 2006. “Conquest and desire: Roman Victoria in public and provincial sculpture.” In Representations of War in Ancient Rome, edited by S. Dillon and K. Welch, 218-43. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Lerouge, C.  2007.  L’image des Parthes dans le monde gréco-romain: du début du Ier sècle av. J.-C. jusqu’à la fin du Haut-Empire romain.  Steiner Verlag.

Levick, B. 1982. “Propaganda and the imperial coinage.” Antichthon 16:104-16.

_____. 1999. “Messages on the Roman coinage: types and inscriptions.” In Roman Coins and Public Life under the Empire, edited by G. M. Paul, 41-60. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.

Longfellow, B.  “Reflections of imperialism: the Meta Sudans in Rome and the Provinces.”  Art Bulletin 92.4: 275-292

Lusnia, S. 2006. “Battle imagery and politics on the Severan Arch in the Roman Forum.” In Representations of War in Ancient Rome, edited by S. Dillon and K. Welch, 272-99. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

McDonnell, M. 2006. “Roman Aesthetics and the Spoils of Syracuse.” In Representations of War in Ancient Rome, edited by S. Dillon and K. Welch, 68-90. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

McKeown, J. C. 1984. “FABVLA PROPOSITO NULLA TEGENDA MEO: Ovid’s Fasti and Augustan Politics.” In Poetry and Politics in the Age of Augustus, edited by T. Woodman and D. West, 169-88. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

Mattingly, D. J. and S. E. Alcock. 1997. Dialogues in Roman imperialism: power, discourse, and discrepant experience in the Roman Empire. Portsmouth, R.I.: JRA.

Metcalf, W. 1999. “Coins as primary evidence.” In Roman Coins and Public Life under the Empire, edited by G. M. Paul, 1-18. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.

Morawiecki, L. A. and Polskie Towarzystwo Archeologiczne i Numizmatyczne. 1983. Political propaganda in the coinage of the late Roman Republic (44-43 B.C.). Wroc*aw: Zak*ad Narodowy im. Ossolinskich Wydawnictwo.

Murray, W. M. and P. M. Petsas. 1989. Octavian’s Campsite Memorial for the Actian War. Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society.

Paul, G. M., ed. 1999. Roman Coins and Public Life under the Empire. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.

Pollini, J. 1993. “The Gemma Augustea: Ideology, Rhetorical Imagery, and the Construction of a Dynastic Narrative.” In Narrative and Event in Ancient Art, edited by P. Holliday, 258-98. Cambridge: Cambridge Universty Press.

Pollini, J.  1990.  “Man or god: divine Assimilation and Imitation in the Late Republic and Early Principate,”  334-363 in K. A. Raaflaub and M. Toher, Between Republic and Empire: Interpretations of Augustus and his Principate.

Powell, A. 1992. Roman Poetry and Propaganda in the Age of Augustus. London: Bristol Classical Press.

Price, S. R. F. 1985. Rituals and Power: the Roman Imperial Cult in Asia Minor: Cambridge University Press.

Roth, J. P. 2006. “Siege Narrative in Livy: Representation and Reality.” In Representations of War in Ancient Rome, edited by S. Dillon and K. Welch, 29-67. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Scott, S. and J. Webster. 2003. Roman Imperialism and Provincial Art. Cambridge, UK ; New York: Cambridge University Press.

K. Scott, ‘The Political Propaganda of 44-30 BC’, MAAR 11 (1933), 7 -49

Smith, R. R. R. 1981. “Greeks, foreigners, and Roman republican portraits.” Journal of Roman Studies 71:24-38.

_____. 1994. “Spear-won land at Boscoreale: on the royal paintings of a Roman villa.” Journal of Roman Archaeology 7:100-28.

Stamper, J.W.  2005.  The Architecture of Roman Temples: the Republic to the Middle Empire.  Cambridge.

Tanner, J. 2000. “Portraits, Power, and Patronage in the Late Roman Republic.” Journal of Roman Studies 90:18-50.  Available on JSTOR:  http://www.jstor.org/stable/300199

Varner, E. R., et al. 2000. From Caligula to Constantine : tyranny & transformation in Roman portraiture. Atlanta: Michael C. Carlos Museum.

Varner, E. 2008. “Memory Sanctions, Identity Politics and Altered Imperial Portraits,” in S. Benoist and A. Daguet-Gagey, eds., Un Discours en Images de la Condemnation de Mémoire, 129-52.

Versnel, H. S. 1970. Triumphus: an Inquiry into the Origin, Development and Meaning of the Roman Triumph. Leiden.

Wallace-Hadrill, A. 1982. “The golden age and sin in Augustan ideology.” Past and Present 95:19-36.

_____. 1986. “Image and Authority in the Coinage of Augustus.” Jorunal of Roman Studies 76:66-87.

_____. 1990. “Roman arches and Greek honours: the language of power at Rome.” Proceedings of the Cambridge Philological Society 36:143-81.

Wood, S. “Memoriae Agrippinae: Agrippina the Elder in Julio-Claudian Art and Propaganda,” American Journal of Archaeology 92.3 1988: 409-26.

Woodman, A.J.  and D. West (eds). 1984.  Poetry and Politics in the Age of Augustus.  New York: Cambridge University Press.

Wyke, M. 1992. “Augustan Cleopatras: female power and poetic authority.” In Roman Poetry and Propaganda in the Age of Augustus, edited by A. Powell, 98-140. London: Bristol Classical Press.

P. Zanker, The Power of Images in the Age of Augustus (Ann Arbor 1988)

Alexander the Great and the Hellenistic Dynasties

Badian, E.  1981.  “The Deification of Alexander the Great,” in Ancient Macedonian Studies in Honor of Charles F. Edson.  Thessalonika.

Brown, B. R.  1995.  Royal Portraits in Sculpture and CoinsPyrrhos and the Successors of Alexander the Great.  New York.

Cohen, A. 2010.  Art in the Era of Alexander the Great: Paradigms of Manhood and Their Cultural Traditions.  Cambridge.

Davis, N. and C. M. Kraay.  1973.  Hellenistic Kingdoms: Portrait Coins and History.  London

Fowler, R. 2005. “‘Most fortunate roots’: tradition and legitimacy in Parthian royal ideology.” In Imaginary Kings: Royal Images in the Ancient Near East, Greece and Rome, edited by O. Hekster and R. Fowler. Stuttgart: Steiner.

Fox, R. L. 2007. “Alexander the Great: ‘Last of the Achaemenids’?” In Persian Responses: Political and Cultural Interaction with(in) the Achaemenid Empire, edited by C. Tuplin, 267-311. Swansea: Classical Press of Wales.

Hadley, R. A.  1964.  “Royal Propaganda of Seleucus I and Lysimachus.”  JHS 50-65.

Mørklholm, O., et al.  1991. Early Hellenistic Coinage: from the Accession of Alexander to the Peace of Apamea (336-188 BC)  New York.

Smith, R.R.R. 1988.  Hellenistic Royal Portraits.  Oxford.

Smith, R. R. R.  1991.  Hellenistic Sculpture.  London.

Smith, R. R. R.  1993.  “Kings and Philosopher,” pp 202-211 in Images and Ideologies: Self-definition in the Hellenistic World, ed. A. Bulloch, et al.

Stewart, A.  1993.  Faces of Power: Alexander’s Image and Hellenistic Politics. Berkeley.

Stewart, A.  2003.  “Alexander in Greek and Roman Art,” in Brill’s Companion to Alexander the Great, ed. J. Roisman.

Stewart, A. 2004. Attalos, Athens, and the Akropolis: the Pergamene “Little Barbarians” and their Roman and Renaissance Legacy. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Strootman, R. 2005. “Kings against Celts. Deliverance from Barbarians as a Theme in Hellenistic Royal Propaganda.” In The Manipulative Mode: Political Propaganda in Antiquity, A Collection of Case Studies, edited by K. A. E. Enenkel and I. L. Pfeijffer, 101-43. Leiden: Brill.

Thompson, D.B.  1973.  Ptolemaic Oinochoai and Portraits in Faience; Aspects of the Ruler Cult.  Oxford.

Welch, K. E. 2006. “Domi Militiaeque: Roman domestic aesthetics and war booty in the republic.” In Representations of War in Ancient Rome, edited by S. Dillon and K. Welch, 91-161. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Classical Greece: Politics, and general works.

Bérard, C., ed. 1989. A City of Images. Iconography and Society in Ancient Greece. Priceton.

Burstein, S., et al.  1999.  Ancient Greece: A Political, Social, and Cultural History.

Camp, J.  2004. The Archaeology of Athens.

Carradice, I. 1995. Greek coins. 1st University of Texas Press ed. Austin, Texas: University of Texas Press.

Carradice, I. and M. Price. 1988. Coinage in the Greek world. London

Carradice, I. (ed.)  1987.  Coinage and Administration in the Athenian and Persian Empires.  BAR International Series 343.  Oxford.

Carey, C. 2005. “Propaganda and Competition in Athenian Oratory.” In The Manipulative Mode: Political Propaganda in Antiquity, A Collection of Case Studies, edited by K. A. E. Enenkel and I. L. Pfeijffer, 65-100. Leiden: Brill.

Castriota, D.  2000.  “Justice, kingship and imperialism: rhetoric and reality in fifth-century B.C. representations following the Persian Wars,” pp 443-79 in B. Cohen (ed.) Not the Classical Ideal: Athens and the Construction of the Other in Greek Art.  Leiden.

Castriota, D.  1992.  Myth, Ethos and Actuality: Official Art in Fifth-Century B.C. Athens.  Madison.

Castriota, D. 2005. “Feminizing the Barbarian and Barbarizing the Feminine: Amazons, Trojans, and Persians in the Stoa Poikile.” In Periklean Athens and Its Legacy: Problems and Perspectives, edited by J. M. Barringer and J. M. Hurwit, 89-102.

Cohen, B. (ed.) 2000.  Not the Classical Ideal:  Athens and the Construction of the Other in Greek Art.  Leiden.

Dillon, S.  2006.  Ancient Greek Portrait Sculpture: Contexts, Subjects, and Styles.  Cambridge.

Hurwit, J.  2000.  The Athenian Acropolis: History, Mythology, and Archaeology from the Neolithic Era to the Present.

Hurwit, J.  2004.  The Acropolis in the Age of Pericles.

Lissarrague, F.  2002.  “The Athenian Image of the Foreigner,”  pp 101-124 in T. Harrison (ed.) Greeks and Barbarians.  New York.

Meadows, A. and K. Shipton. 2001. Money and its uses in the ancient Greek world. New York: Oxford University Press.

Miller, M.  1997.  Athens and Persia: A Study in Cultural Receptivity.

Pollitt, J. J.  1972.  Art and Experience in Classical Greece.

Pollitt, J. J.  1986.  Art in the Hellenistic Age.  Cambridge.

Rhodes, R. F.   1995.  Architecture and Meaning on the Athenian Acropolis.

Rhodes, P.J.  2005.  A History of the Classical Greek World.  Blackwell.

Smith, A.  ‘Athenian Political Art from the Fifth and Fourth centuries BCE: Images of Political Personifications’, C. W. Blackwell (ed.), Demos: Classical Athenian Democracy (A. Mahoney & R. Scaife (eds.), The Stoa: a consortium for electronic publication in the humanities [www.stoa.org] edition of January 18 2003).

http://www.stoa.org/projects/demos/article_personifications?page=1&greekEncoding=UnicodeC

Starr, C.G.  1975.  “Greeks and Persians in the Fourth Century BC: A Study in Cultural Contacts before Alexander.”  Iranica Antiqua 11: 39-99.

Stewart, A. F.  1990.  Greek Sculpture: An Exploration.

Trevett, J. 2001. “Coinage and Democracy at Athens.” In Money and its Uses in the Ancient Greek World, edited by A. Meadows and K. Shipton, 23-34. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

The Near East (including Persia and the Neo-Assyrian Empire)

Ataç, M.-A.  2010.  The Mythology of Kingship in Neo-Assyrian Art.  Cambridge.

Allen, L.  2005.  The Persian Empire.  Chicago.

Allen, L. 2005. “Le roi imaginaire: an audience with the Achaemenid king.” In Imaginary Kings: Royal Images in the Ancient Near East, Greece and Rome, edited by O. Hekster and R. Fowler. Stuttgart: Steiner.

Barnett, R.D., Bleibtreu, E. and Turner, G.  1998.  Sculptures from the Southwest Palace of Sennacherib at Nineveh.

Bersani, L. and U. Dutoit. 1985. The Forms of Violence: narrative in Assyrian Art and Modern Culture. New York: Schocken Books.

Boardman, J.  2000.  Persia and the West.

Brosius, M.  2000.  The Persian Empire from Cyrus II to Artaxerxes I.  LACTOR 16.  (London Association of Classical Teachers – Original Records) London.

Cahn, H.A.  1989.  “Le monnayage des satrapes: iconographie et signification,” REA 91: 97-106.

Calmeyer, P.  1980.  “Textual Sources for the Interpretation of Achaemenian Palace Decoration,”  Iran 18: 56-57.

Cohen, A. and S. Kangas, ed.  2010.  Assyrian Reliefs from the Palace of Ashurnasirpal II: A Cultural Biography.

Curtis, J.  2000.  Ancient Persia.  London.

Curtis and Reade, Art and Empire: Treasures from Assyria in the British Museum.

Curtis, J. and N. Tallis.  2005.  Forgotten Empire: the world of Ancient Persia. Berkeley.

Frankfort, H.  The Art and Architecture of the Ancient Orient.

Grayson, A.K.  1976.  Assyrian Royal Inscriptions.  Wiesbaden.

Kuhrt, A. 2007. “Cyrus the Great of Persia: Images and Realities.” In Representations of Political Power: Case Histories from Times of Change and Dissolving Order in the Ancient Near East, edited by M. H. Feldman and M. Heinz, 169-92. Winona Lake, Ind.: Eisenbrauns.

Kuhrt, A.  1995.  The Ancient Near East, 3000-300 BC. esp. vol. II.

Liverani, M. 1979. “The Ideology of the Assyrian Empire.” In Power and Propaganda: A Symposium on Ancient Empires, 297-317. Copenhagen.

Madhloom, T. A.  1970.  The Chronology of Neo-Assyrian Art.

Miller, M.  1997.  Athens and Persia: A Study in Cultural Receptivity.

Nigro, L. 1998.  “The two steles of Sargon: iconology and visual propaganda at the beginning of royal Akkadian relief,” Iraq (60): 85-102.Reade, J. 1979. “Ideology and Propaganda in Assyrian Art.” In Power and Propaganda: A Symposium on Ancient Empires, edited by M. T. Larsen, 329-59. Copenhagen.

Nylander, C. 1979. “Achaemenid imperial art.” In Power and Propaganda: A Symposium on Ancient Empires, edited by M. T. Larsen. Copenhagen.

Parpola, S.  and R. M. Whiting, eds.  1997.  Assyria 1995: Proceedings of the 10th Anniversary Symposium of the Neo-Assyrian Text Corpus Project, Helsinki, September 7-11, 1995

Porada, E. 1986. “The uses of art to convey political meanings in the ancient Near East.” In Artistic Strategy and the Rhetoric of Power: Political Uses of Art from Antiquity to the Present, edited by D. Castriota, 15-25. Carbondale: Southern Sachs, A. J. 1953. “The Late Assyrian Royal Seal Type.” Iraq 15:167-70.

Reade, J.  1998.  Assyrian Sculpture. London.

Reed, S. 2007. “Blurring the edges: a reconsideration of the treatment of enemies in Ashurbanipal’s reliefs.” In Ancient Near Eastern Art in Context, edited by J. Cheng and M. H. Feldman, 101-32. Leiden: Brill.

Root, M.C.  1995.  “Art and Archaeology of the Achaemenid Empire,”  pp. 2615-2637 in Civilizaitons of the Ancient Near East, ed. Jack Sasson.

Root, M. C. 1979. The king and kingship in Achaemenid art : essays on the creation of an iconography of empire. Leiden: diffusion, Brill.

Root, M. C. 2000. “Imperial Ideology in Achaemenid Persian Art: Transforming the Mesopotamian Legacy.” Canadian Society for Mesoopotamian Studies Bulletin 35.

Russell, J. M. 1991. Sennacherib’s Palace without Rival at Nineveh.  Chicago.

Tadmor, H.  1997.  “Propaganda, Literature, Historiography: Cracking the Code of the Assyrian Royal Inscriptions.”  In Assyria 1995: Proceedings of the 10th Anniversary Symposium of the Neo-Assyrian Text Corpus Project, Helsinki, September 7-11, 1995, edited by S. Parpola and R. M. Whiting, 325-339.  Helsinki.

Wiesehofer, J.  2001.  Ancient Persia.

Winter, I. 1985. “After the battle is over: the stele of the vultures and the beginning of historical narrative in the art of the ancient Near East.” Studies in the History of Art 16:11-32.

Winter, I. 1989. “The body of the able ruler: towards an understanding of the statues of Gudea.” In Dumu-É-dub-ba-a: Studies in Honor of A. W. Sjöberg, edited by H. Behrens and e. al., 573-83. Philadelphia.

Winter, I. 1996. “Sex, rhetoric and the public monument: the alluring body of Naram-Sin of Agade.” In Sexuality in Ancient Art, edited by N. B. Kampen, 11-26. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

Winter, I. 1997. “Art in empire: the royal image and the visual dimensions of Assyrian ideology.” In Assyria 1995: Proceedings of the 10th Anniversary Symposium of the Neo-Assyiran Text Corpus Project, Helsinki, September 7-11, 1995, edited by S. Parpola and R. M. Whiting, 359-82. Helsinki.

Winter, I. 1998. “The affective properties of styles: an inquiry into analytical process and the inscription of meaning in art history.” In Picturing Science, Producing Art, edited by C. A. Jones and P. Galison. New York: Routledge.

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